image/svg+xml29 X/1/2019 InterdIscIplInarIa archaeologIca natural scIences In archaeology homepage: The Vertical Structure of Neolithic Finds in the Fills of Archaeological Features Markéta Končelová a* , Magdalena Midgley b , Jan Rulf a , Marie Zápotocká a , Ivan Pavlů a, c a Institute of Archaeology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Letenská 4, 118 01 Prague 1, Czech Republic b University of Edinburgh, Old College, South Bridge City, EH8 9YL Edinburgh, United Kingdom c Department of Archaeology, Philosophical Faculty, University of Hradec Králové, náměstí Svobody 331/2, 500 02, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic 1. Excavation Bylany 1990–1993 The Neolithic site in Bylany (Kutná Hora district) was systematically surveyed between 1953 and 1967 to the southeast of today’s village and afterwards the history of the settlement was gradually supplemented with information concerning other microareas (Bylany 1–5) within this cadastre (Figure 1). Located in the western part was the Neolithic microarea designated as Bylany 4; in accordance with its surface surveys and sondages, its range and cultural content were determined as belonging to the period of Linear Pottery culture (LBK) and Stroked Pottery culture (SBK). Already the frst probe from 1965, which was conducted roughly in a southeast-northwest direction through the central part of this microarea, uncovered two ditches with a tapering (V) profle (Zápotocká, 1983). These features were reminiscent of other rather well-known (but at that time still quite rare) circular enclosures with ditches from the period of the Stroked Pottery and Lengyel culture in the area of the Danube, in Germany, Slovakia and in Moravia (Lies, 1963; Podborský, 1988; 1999; Tichý, 1966; Točík, Lichardus, 1966; Wagner, 1928). While a survey of these central European rondel zones had a certain impetus already in the 1970s, it was not properly introduced until two decades later (Trnka, 1991). The research strategy in Bylany prioritised the completion of excavations in the Bylany 1 microarea. The survey of the Bylany 4 rondel microarea therefore took place only in the form of a geophysical prospection that identifed the central double rondel 4/1 (features 1728 and 1745) in its entirety (Faltysová, Marek, 1983). Only later, in association with research implemented in the early 1990s, the plan of rondel 4/1 was supplemented with a large concentric ditch enclosure (feature 1830). Also discovered were three additional later circular ditches (rondel 4/2) that Volume X ● Issue 1/2019 ● Pages 29–51 *Corresponding author. E-mail: ARtICLE InfO Article history: Received: 31 st December 2018Accepted: 16 th July 2019DOI: 10.24916/iansa.2019.1.3 Key words: NeolithicBylany sitecircular enclosuresrondels settlement pitsformation processesdeposition ABStRACt This article examines the distribution of Neolithic fnds in the fllings of features with diferent functions (settlement pits, rondel ditches, enclosure) in the Bylany 4 microarea, Kutná Hora district, Czech Republic. We investigate the nature of their extinction or the emergence of flls. The vertical structure of archaeological fnds (pottery and non-pottery) deposited in the sediments of various features was monitored in terms of fve attributes. Based on the diferent structures of the flls of archaeological features, it is evident that the structure of the horizontal or vertical distribution of fndings in their flls can yield information about the creation of the fnding assemblages. It also refects the dynamics of the development of anthropogenic activities in the vicinity of the features. In terms of methodology, the work follows up on the general theory of formative processes, while their natural and cultural transformations are discussed at a more detailed level of specifc forms. It is necessary to consistently distinguish between the behaviour of clay sediments and the actual artefacts stored therein. It is further necessary to individually evaluate the specifc natural conditions of deposition at a specifc site as well as the variable cultural roles of individual features.
image/svg+xmlIANSA 2019 ● X/1 ● 29–51Markéta Končelová, Magdalena Midgley , Jan Rulf , Marie Zápotocká, Ivan Pavlů: The Vertical Structure of Neolithic Finds in the Fills of Archaeological Features 30 were interfering with this large enclosure in its southern part (Figure 2). The entire course of both rondels determined geophysically (Mayer, 1995; Křivánek, 2015) pointed to a close spatial relationship between these two bodies, as on Site I in Kolín (Šumberová, ed., 2012; Řídký et al. , 2014; 2019).Large-scale excavation of the ditches in Bylany did not take place until 1990–1993. The goal of the grant project was to explore rondel 4/1 and its chronological and cultural relationship with the local settlement and the biritual cemetery of the Stroked Pottery culture in Miskovice. The research focused on several key areas of the rondel site 1 and was supervised by several experts 2 . The results of the project were subsequently published, with each of the co-authors separately addressing the issue of the functional interpretation of the rondel (Pavlů, Rulf, Zápotocká, 1995, pp.97–98). Interpretation of the rondel phenomenon still 1 The individual excavated areas in the Bylany 4 microarea are identifed in the following manner: 1991 – excavation in the southern entrance of Rondel 4/1, 1992a – excavation in the western part of the large enclosure (feature 1830), 1992b – excavation in the western entrance of Rondel 4/1, 1993 – excavation at the northern edge of the microarea. 2 I. Pavlů, (+) J. Rulf and M. Zápotocká cooperated in 1991 and 1992a areas. The research in 1992b and 1993 areas was led by (+) M. Midgley together with students from the University of Edinburgh. In 1991, the probe excavation in the B-J/6 sectors was carried out by A. Reinhardt (senior student of University in Saarbrücken). remains a discussed issue, most recently summed up by J. Řídký (2011; 2019) and H. Stäuble (2012). Regarding this, however, there is also scepticism on principle from some of the researchers (Trnka, 1991, p.318). The actual publication of the rondel in Bylany focused on issues arising from the research project, such as clarifying the construction of the rondel and its relation to the surrounding settlement and burial ground. Set aside for then was the publication of settlement features outside of the rondel and also a more detailed description of the fllings of ditches, their chronology, and other contexts of the rondel. Some partial questions were tackled by other studies, such as the placement of specifc fnds of grinding tools at the entrance to rondel 4/1 (Pavlů, 1990), or suggestions for new directions of interpretation (Květina, 2010; Květina, Končelová, 2013a; 2013b). The information obtained by the current research in Bylany 4 microarea has not been exhausted. A number of questions related to the three distinct areas (not only spatially but also functionally), encourages the search for answers to the importance of this area during the Late Neolithic (according to Czech periodization). 2. Determination of the Horizontal and the Vertical Position In the early 1990s, feld excavation methodology was complemented by a consistent inventory of fndings in