image/svg+xml43 IX/1/2018 InterdIscIplInarIa archaeologIca natural scIences In archaeology homepage: A Roman Structure from Hurbanovo, SW Slovakia: Multiproxy Investigation of Unique Waterlogged Deposit Mária Hajnalová a* , Zora Bielichová b , Ján Rajtár b , Denisa Krčová b , Tomáš Čejka c , Zbyšek Šustek d , Jana Mihályiová b a Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Arts, Constantine the Philosopher University Nitra, Hodžova 1, 94974 Nitra, Slovakia b Institute of Archaeology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Akademická 2, 94921 Nitra, Slovakia c Plant Science and Biodiversity Center, Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84523 Bratislava, Slovakia d Institute of Zoology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 06 Bratislava, Slovakia 1. Introduction In the Middle Danube region of east-central Europe, waterlogged archaeological sites – or even single features – are rare ( cf. Ottó, Gábor, 2012; Maixnerová, 2015). Therefore, when in 2003 a waterlogged pit with an abundance of wooden fnds was discovered in Hurbanovo (Slovakia), it was a local sensation. The decision was made to rescue as much eco- and naturfacts preserved in the sediment as possible. Nevertheless, the winter time and lack of equipment strongly infuenced the method of excavation and sampling. The infll was taken in bulk to be processed later in the laboratory. Subsampling of bulk samples, their fotation as well as the recovery and conservation of wooden artefacts, was done immediately. The fnal evaluation of the recovered materials proceeded only after securing the Roman period date of the plant and invertebrate remains, achieved by AMS in 2017. The aim of this paper is to present the most important results from the multidisciplinary research of organic fnds and to discuss their potential for improving our understanding of the environment and subsistence of south-western Slovakia during the Early Roman period. 2. Background information on site The region of Hurbanovo, situated in the south-eastern part of the Danubian lowland (south-western Slovakia) near the confuence of the Nitra and Žitava rivers, had been intensively occupied since early prehistory ( e.g. Ratimorská, 1998). The site at Hurbanovo-Štrkovisko is only a small part of one of the most extensive archaeological settlement sites situated in the southern limits of the town. It occupies the slightly elevated sand dune ridge stretching a length of Volume IX ● Issue 1/2018 ● Pages 43–69 *Corresponding author. E-mail: Article info Article history: Received: 2 nd March 2018Accepted: 19 th July 2018 DOI: 10.24916/iansa.2018.1.4 Key words: Roman period waterlogged fll archaeobotanyarchaeozoologypalaeoenvironmentsubsistencetechnology of woodretting ABStrACt The paper presents results of analyses of various types of organic remains recovered from a waterlogged fll of the sunken structure from Hurbanovo (SW Slovakia) dated to the Early Roman period (1 st and 2 nd century AD). The structure represents a unique fnd – the only archaeological feature with waterlogged infll at the site and one of nine known from the Roman Period “barbaric” territory of modern day Slovakia. The waterlogging enabled the preservation of a wider spectrum of organic remains and taxa as known from contemporary Roman period sites in the region. Here are discussed charred and waterlogged seeds and fruits, waterlogged wood, charcoal, animal bones, molluscs and insects. Floral and faunal data yield evidence of crop and animal husbandry, domestic/household activities at the site, and convey information on the surroundings and human-exploited landscape. Taphonomic analyses indicate that the majority of ecofacts from the pit are in the secondary position, and therefore cannot be used for ascertaining the original function of the structure. This has been done solely on archaeological analyses of the contextual data and by use of analogy.
image/svg+xmlIANSA 2018 ● IX/1 ● 43–69Mária Hajnalová, Zora Bielichová, Ján Rajtár, Denisa Krčová, Tomáš Čejka, Zbyšek Šustek, Jana Mihályiová: A Roman Structure from Hurbanovo, SW Slovakia: Multiproxy Investigation of Unique Waterlogged Deposit 44