image/svg+xml125 VIII/2/2017 InterdIscIplInarIa archaeologIca natural scIences In archaeology homepage: Analog vs. Digital Documentation – cutting the costs, expanding the possibilities. Idjoš Gradište case study Miroslav Marić a* , Jugoslav Pendić b a Institute for Balkan Studies, Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Knez Mihailova 35/4, Belgrade, Serbia b Biosense Institute, Zorana Đinđića 1, Novi Sad, Serbia 1. Introduction The archaeological site of Idjoš is located 6 km northwest of the town of Kikinda (Figure 1), in northeast serbia, on a slightly elevated Tisza river terrace above a confuence of two smaller streams, now culverted (Marić et al. 2016). The terrace was formed in the late pleistocene period by the meandering of the Tisza river, which is now located about 20 kilometres to the west of the site; however, numerous traces in the landscape still show its presence barely 3 kilometres west of the site in the pleistocene (Koprivica, strajin 1994). It is a multi–layered site with remains of human occupation spanning from the early Neolithic period (Starčevo/Körös culture) to the Late Neolithic period (Vinča and Tisza cultures). After a hiatus in occupation, a 250-metre diameter, sub–oval, fortifed complex was constructed, belonging to the Late Bronze/Early Iron Age period (Belegiš II – Gava ceramic traditions). Sporadic Late Medieval period fnds have also been occasionally recovered during surface survey prospection. The Neolithic portion of the site was situated on the western edge of the pleistocene terrace, above the confuence of the Grčka and Berčula streams (Figure 1, green feld). This section has been called Gradište, while the Bronze Age part of the site, located immediately north-east of the Neolithic area, has been called Đurica`s or the slavic city. The pleistocene terrace comprises mostly of river deposited sands and brown aleurite clay.The Neolithic part of the site consists of a tell feature, roughly 60×70 metres in size, and a fat area to the north–east of it approximately 130×120 metres in size. The tell is about 2.5 meters high, surrounded by streams on three sides, and the approach to the settlement appears to have been easiest from the northeast. Immediately northeast of the Neolithic settlement, a large 250-meter diameter earthen enclosure marks the Bronze Age/Iron Age site (Figure 1). However, this settlement extends further north and northeast of the enclosure based on the preliminary results of the feld and geomagnetic survey conducted in 2014 and 2015. The frst archaeological research on the site was undertaken here by Julius Nagy in 1913, but the results of these excavations were not published and the whereabouts of the fnds is unknown (Girić 1957, 219). Thirty-fve years Volume VIII ● Issue 2/2017 ● Pages 125–136 *corresponding author. e-mail: ArtIcle INfo Article history: Received: 1 st March 2017Accepted: 6 th December 2017 DOI: 10.24916/iansa.2017.2.2 Key words: Neolithic Bronze Age Iron AgeIdjoš Gradišteimage – based modellingvector illustrations3D modelsstructure from motion ABStrAct The article deals with the use of an integrated GIs- and image-based modelling approach to archaeological feld documentation, developed for the Borderlands: ArISE project. The project, established in 2014, examines social boundaries and interactions from the early Neolithic to the early Iron Age period in the north-east Banat region of modern Serbia. Archaeological excavations at the site of Gradište near Idjoš are at the core of the project, aimed at providing insight into the development of social identities and the manner of coexistence and interactions between diferent communities of various periods. Due to limited funds, the process of feld documentation has been almost completely digitized, enabling fast but very precise documenting of features and fnds recovered from the feld: increasing the possibilities for post ex analysis, publication and presentation.
image/svg+xmlIANSA 2017 ● VIII/2 ● 125–136Miroslav Marić, Jugoslav Pendić: Analog vs. Digital Documentation – Cutting the Costs, Expanding the Possibilities. Idjoš Gradište Case Study 126 later, the site was excavated by Miodrag Grbić (Grbić 1950) who, in the course of two excavation campaigns (Grbić 1951) excavated more than 300 m² inside the circular enclosure searching for the Slavic city. In 1954, Luka Nadlački from the Kikinda Museum excavated on the tell part of the site, and discovered a wattle and daub structure in trench 3 with the remains of pottery attributed to both the Tisza and Vinča style in the same context (Girić 1957, 221–222). Almost two decades later, during 1972, a small-scale rescue archaeological excavation was undertaken at the site by the National Museum Kikinda and provincial Institute for protection of cultural Monuments petrovaradin, with 4 trenches excavated on the Neolithic settlement and others placed over a Bronze Age/Iron Age necropolis located to the southeast of the sub-oval enclosure (Medović 1984). Finally, after a four-decade long hiatus, a new research cycle was instigated in 2014, aimed at researching the Gradište site through a new, broader paradigm (The Borderlands: ARIse project, i.e. Archaeological Research of Iđoš site and its environment). The project is envisioned as an ongoing programme to be undertaken in several stages, including evaluation of the archaeological potential of the site, targeted excavations of defned features, and broader research leading to systematic publication and public outreach. The project is focused, among other aspects, on establishing the exact character of the settlements in the distinct periods of prehistory: to better understand the site’s formation and its prehistoric landscape conditions, and thus to better study and understand the life of the site and its inhabitants. 2. Methodology Immediately from the beginning of the new excavations in 2014 it became clear that available funds could not facilitate having a large excavation crew with various specialists and sub-specialists waiting on standby during the excavation season. Rather, it was decided to expedite the excavation process through a simplifcation of excavation recording procedures. Given their cost and time-pressure, contemporary archaeological excavations require efcient and exact documentation during all feldwork and there is thus a strong incentive for excavators to develop new techniques and methods, or refne the existing practices, for a more streamlined approach to feld research. Some commercially-available software solutions, coupled with precise instrumentation used in the feld, make new digital documentation techniques afordable and easily available alternatives for feld research. Although digital archaeological documentation may still be regarded as a novelty, and has many potential limitations ( e.g. Zubrow 2006), these obstacles are steadily disappearing with every new data acquisition technique and software package that appears on the market ( e.g. Avern, Franssens 2011; Düfort et al. 2011; Motz, carrier 2013; smeets et al. 2013). The number of software solutions available is increasing exponentially, and it is perhaps only a matter of time before even tailor-made digital recording solutions for archaeological excavations become standard tools in the feld (some solutions like ArcheocAD, although present for a long while did not