image/svg+xml175 VIII/2/2017 InterdIscIplInarIa archaeologIca natural scIences In archaeology homepage: A look at the region Archaeobotany and the Terramara Archaeological Park of Montale (Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy): Experiences of Public Education Giovanna Bosi a , Giovanna Barbieri a , Assunta Florenzano a , Elisa Fraulini b , Maria Chiara Montecchi a , Alessia Pelillo b , Elena Righi b , Rossella Rinaldi a* , Cristiana Zanasi b a Laboratory of Palynology and Palaeobotany, Department of the Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy b Archaeological Park and Open Air Museum of Terramara in Montale, Archaeological and Ethnological Comunal Museum, Modena, Italy 1. Introduction For many years, numerous questions have been raised regarding archaeological site management and the preservation of its surroundings, especially for sites included in extremely anthropized contexts (Urtane 2000).Widespread around the world and with almost a century of experience behind them, archaeological open-air museums (AOAM) 1 are one of the most efective ways of bringing archaeology to the public (Pelillo 2009), representing as they do human-nature interactions. They are in fact a favoured scenario for holistically combining all parties to reconstruct the complex history of humankind and nature. Archaeological parks have a defnitive value as public education tools, providing for most people the only frsthand experience at a site. Archaeologists, therefore, should pay particular attention to their management needs and educational topics – in order to provide correct and efcient 1 Archaeological Open-Air Museums: the defnition of AOAM refers to the Guide to the Archaeological Open-Air museums in Europe (Pelillo 2009). information about archaeology (Hofman et al. 2002). In its dual role as an archaeological reserve and interpretation centre, a historical site or park should ofer a useful mixture of research and conservation, education and leisure. Moreover, it should aspire to preserve the archaeological remains in ways that are well integrated in the surrounding landscape (Panosa 2012).According to the Italian legislation (D.M. of 18 th April 2012), an archaeological park is a “territorial scope characterized by peculiar pieces of archaeological evidence and an overlapping of historical, landscape or environmental values, equipped as an open-air museum on the basis of a specifc legislation. Archaeological parks fall under the category of territorial parks, intended as places where the mix of culture and nature is presented in diferent forms, sometimes with prevailing natural (geological, vegetational, faunal, etc. ) features, sometimes with the historical ones (landscape, architecture, urban, mining, etc. ) An archaeological park occurs when the historical-archaeological component is quantitatively or qualitatively a key determinant.”Archaeological sites or parks contribute to the cultural identity of their own community, along with tourism Volume VIII ● Issue 2/2017 ● Pages 175–186 *Corresponding author. E-mail: ARTICLE InfO Article history: Received: 2 nd August 2017Accepted: 21 st December 2017 DOI: 10.24916/iansa.2017.2.6 Key words: Bronze Ageenvironmental reconstructionpaleoethnobotanyexperimental archaeologyeducation AbSTRACT The Terramara Archaeological Park of Montale is an open-air museum dedicated to the enhancement of the Bronze Age terramare culture of Northern Italy. Investigation of its rich archaeological record, particularly from the archaeobotanical point of view (seeds/fruits, pieces of wood and charcoal, pollen and charcoal particles), has made it possible to reconstruct the landscape’s evolution and human-plant-animal relationships. This paper aims to present a comprehensive and exhaustive overview of the relationship between archaeology and archaeobotany in order to improve the content and exposition of the Terramara Archaeological Park of Montale, thanks to the fruitful cooperation between the Laboratory of Palynology and Archaeobotany of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and Civic Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology of Modena.
image/svg+xmlIANSA 2017 ● VIII/2 ● 175–186 Giovanna Bosi, Giovanna Barbieri, Assunta Florenzano, Elisa Fraulini, Maria Chiara Montecchi, Alessia Pelillo, Elena Righi, Rossella Rinaldi, Cristiana Zanasi: Archaeobotany and the Terramara Archaeological Park of Montale (Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy): Experiences of Public Education 176 development and the economic improvement of the territory. Consequently, for an efcient archaeological or historical site recovery it is essential to plan a well-defned project that shall take into account its own specifc features. First of all, in a revaluation project, symbolic or cultural characteristics of the site should be assessed. Archaeological or scientifc features have also to be considered, according to their important contribution in terms of knowledge and awareness. Finally, careful consideration should be given to the teaching possibilities, as these represent the strongest link between the archaeological remains and the visitors (Panosa 2012). AOAMs play a unique role in this feld. Developed frst in Germany and Scandinavia, while yet being relatively recent in Italy, they ofer an exciting interface between scientifc research and education, bridging the gap between academia and the public. By reconstructing the environments and activities of the past in a striking and evocative way, they manage to convey to a wider audience the results of excavation and research. For many of the AOAMs, a key factor has doubtless been their relationship with experimental archaeology, this developing scientifc discipline having found fertile ground for testing its procedure and methods according to scientifc analysis in this kind of museum, increasing the relationship between research and divulgation (Zanasi 2014a; Zanasi 2015). In addition, there is a growing demand by the public and by schools for a form of archaeology-tourism that is increasingly taking the form of edutainment . Here the learning-by-doing philosophy evinces the visitors’ emotional involvement: they are transported backwards in time, where they are immersed in the atmosphere of bygone ages. Not infrequently, this process is facilitated by the presence of qualifed staf dressed in period costume and skilled in historical re-enactment (Zanasi 2014a; Zanasi 2015). Through a hands-on experiential approach, archaeological parks are one of the best tools for humanities and science education in the cultural and environmental heritage feld. According to Dyer (2007), “There are curricula across all sectors which now contain more elements of cultural heritage, ecology and sustainability – particularly in science, geography, citizenship and religious education – but somehow the holistic energy that turns facts into feelings, professional development into corporate responsibility and understanding into personal action is not there in sufcient strength. (…) Bringing concrete understanding to abstract scientifc concepts through memorable experiences in an inspiring environment is a very powerful educative tool which too few programmes achieve”. 2. The Terramara Archaeological Park of Montale The Archaeological Park and Open-Air Museum of the Terramara of Montale, located 11 km from the city centre of Modena (Figure 1a), was set up in 2004 by the Civic Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology of Modena. The Terramara Archaeological Park of Montale is dedicated to the enhancement of the terramare communities and their characteristic villages in the Po plain area (2 nd millennium BC, Northern Italy) that represent one of the most important and meaningful cultural entities of European prehistory (Bernabò Brea et al. 1997).The realization of the Park was the achievement of a long period of scientifc research, which had already begun earlier and is still ongoing. At the base of the enduring success of the Park there is this peculiar, constant and osmotic relationship