image/svg+xml179 VII/2/2016 Interd I sc I pl I nar I a archaeolog I ca n atural s c I ences I n a rchaeology homepage: Greco-Italic Amphorae from the Punta Romana Shipwreck (Sardinia – Italy) Loredana Carratoni a , Martina Iezzi b , Constantino Meucci b* a Department of Earth Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome, Italy b Studio C. Meucci, Via di San Tarcisio 62, 00178 Roma, Italy 1. Introduction The ceramics analyzed come from the shipwreck of Punta Romana that is located on the coast of Capo Ferrato (Muravera – Sardinia) at a depth ranging from about 12 to 25 metres. The archaeological remains are dispersed over a wide area owing to the force of the waves impacting on the basaltic rocks of the promontory and the residual ceramics are deeply fragmented. However, contrary to their theft by divers and the destructive activity of the sea, several fragments of diagnostic value may still be found among the seabed rocks (Figure 1), often protected by the Posidonia oceanica seagrass growing about the site. The possible presence of a shipwreck is announced by the presence of two iron anchors lying a few metres away, though yet unstudied, while there is no evidence of any wooden remains of the hull. Although the site has been known from some time ago, the wreck has never been studied and its existence is only mentioned in the list of shipwrecks pertaining to the Mediterranean by Gianfrotta and Pomey (1981); however, underwater exploration of the coast from Capo Ferrato to Villasimius has confrmed that the wreck noticed by these two authors probably refers to a Roman shipwreck with a cargo of bricks and tiles lying ofshore the small Isola dei Cavoli in front of the Villasimius harbor. The survey carried out in 2011 along the coast of Capo Ferrato (Figure 2) ascertained the wide dispersion of the cargo and gave an opportunity to sample some signifcant elements that referred to the same pottery typology, which was recognizable as Greco-Italic amphorae. 1.1 The Greco Italic amphorae The term “Greco-Italic” was used for the frst time in the 1950s by Fernand Benoit (1958) to defne a group of 400 amphorae discovered in several underwater sites close to Marseilles (Will 1982). The studies regarding this peculiar typology of ceramic containers started with the development of underwater archaeology, since the amphorae are the most abundant artefacts comprising the cargo of shipwrecks. In particular, the Greco-Italic amphorae represent the principal Volume VII ● Issue 2/2016 ● Pages 179–187 *Corresponding author. E-mail: A RTIC l E I nfo Article history: Received: 20 th June 2016 Accepted: 28 th December 2016 Key words: amphorae Greco-Italic shipwreck petrography chemical composition provenance Campania Ischia Ab STRACT The remains of the amphorae cargo wrecked close to Punta Romana (Capo Ferrato – Sardinia) has been analyzed through archaeological comparison with well-known typologies, and also by mineralogic, petrographic and chemical analyses in order to ascertain the provenance of the ceramics. The fragments have been identifed as Greco-Italic amphorae types MGS III and MGS III–IV produced in the Ischia and Campania kilns in the 4 th –3 rd century BC. SEM-EDS analyses confrmed the origin from the Campania region, while petrography and XRD analyses allowed two diferent production areas of the shipwreck cargo to be ascertained, namely: the Lacco Ameno furnaces on the island of Ischia; and the furnaces operating in the Capua district.
image/svg+xmlIANSA 2016 ● VII/2 ● 179–187 Loredana Carratoni, Martina Iezzi, Constantino Meucci: Greco-Italic Amphorae from the Punta Romana Shipwreck (Sardinia – Italy) 180 container used between the 4 th and 2 nd century BC for the commerce of wine in the Mediterranean area, as confrmed by a synthetic analysis on the difusion of the Greco-Italic amphorae in the Mediterranean basin made by Rossi (2000) with particular reference to fnds recovered during the excavation of the Ancient Harbour of Pisa. As reported by Long (1987), Greco-Italic amphorae of the Grand Congloué shipwreck can be dated back to between the end of the 3 rd and start of the 2 nd century BC. The same dating is proposed by Costantini (2011) for fragments recovered in the excavations of Piazza Duomo in Pisa, although the production of this peculiar typology of amphorae started in the 4 th century BC. However, the profle of the rim of the amphorae from the latter two sites difers from that of the fragments collected in the Capo Ferrato site (Figure 3) owing to the diferent inclination of the lip. According to several authors, the shape of the Greco Italic amphorae modifed over time owing to their diferent areas of production as well as their dating. The most evident modifcations involved both the rim profle and the base, while the body shape is quite invariant (Py at al. 2001). An overview of the archaeological questions related to these materials was provided by Olcese (2007) and the most important ones are connected to the identifcation of their origin (Greece or Greek colonies of the south of Italy) and the localization of the production centres of this typology