image/svg+xml47 VI/1/2015 INTERDISCIPLINARIA ARCHAEOLOGICA NATURAL SCIENCES IN ARCHAEOLOGY homepage: Abies alba and Homo sapiens in the Schwarzwald – a Diffcult Story Manfred Rösch a* a Laboratory of Archaeobotany, Regional Heritage Institute Baden- Württemberg, Fischersteig 9, 78343 Gaienhofen-Hemmenhofen, Germany 1. Introduction The northern Schwarzwald (northern Black Forest) is today one of the most densely-forested landscapes in central Europe. In some parts, particularly in the higher-altitude Grindenschwarzwald, forest cover is more than 90% (Fischer 1967; Huttenlocher, Dongus 1967). The mountains have a north-south extension of less than 60 km and a west-east extension of about 40 km, with an altitude up to 1163 m asl (Hornisgrinde). If one ignores the deep and narrow valleys of Enz, Nagold, Murg and some smaller rivers, mean elevation increases from more than 600 m asl in the east to more than 1000 m in the west. The bedrock is mostly Triassic sandstone, but also granite, resulting in rather poor and acidic soils. The climate is sub-oceanic, with decreasing temperatures and increasing precipitation as altitude increases. The Hornisgrinde (1163 m), for example, has an annual mean temperature below 5°C and an annual precipitation of 2000 mm.The Schwarzwald National Park, since 1 st January 2014, is situated in the southwestern part of Nordschwarzwald, with elevations over 1000 m. A major aim of the park`s management policy is to re-establish a natural forest cover. After an initial phase during which active – though restricted – forest management is allowed, this re-establishment of the natural forest should happen without any human interference. Finally, the potential natural vegetation should cover the entire park (Tüxen 1956; Dierschke 1994). In the actual present-day vegetation, Picea abies , introduced and planted since the 19 th century, is the most frequent tree with a coverage of more than 60%. Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica , which are regarded as the main trees of the natural mountain forest in Schwarzwald, are much rarer and cover about the same area as Pinus sylvestris. Other trees, such as Acer pseudoplatanus , Quercus petraea , Alnus glutinosa and incana , Fraxinus excelsior , Tilia platyphyllos , Sorbus aria , Salix caprea , Populus tremula , as well as the introduced Volume VI ● Issue 1/2015 ● Pages 47–62 *Corresponding author. E-mail: ARTICLE INFO Article history: Received: 11 th March 2015Accepted 4 th September 2015 Keywords: northern Schwarzwaldcirque lakesnational parkvegetation historynatural forest ABSTRACT High-resolution pollen profles from the centres of all the cirque lakes of the northern Schwarzwald give new evidence on the forest and landscape history of the Schwarzwald National Park and its vici-nity during the last six millennia. In the early 4 th millennium, Abies alba became the most frequent tree of the mountain forest; it had invaded the region several centuries earlier together with Fagus sylvatica . The trees replaced were Quercus , Ulmus , Tilia , Fraxinus , and Corylus . The frst human impact occu-rred towards the end of the 4 th millennium: small-scale deforestation, followed by reforestation – star-ting with Betula . As a consequence, Fagus increased and became more frequent than Abies . In spite of heavy human impact and clearances, especially during the pre-Roman Iron Age and the High Medieval period, Fagus and Abies remained the main trees of the mountain forest. Due to human promotion, Quercus petraea , which before had nearly disappeared, became the third-most important tree during the Late Medieval period. In the early Modern period, the forest became systematically over-exploited and to a greater part destroyed, and Quercus and later Abies became seldom or even disappeared. According to the pollen record, Picea abies was not present in the area before the Medieval period, but took advantage of the forest devastation of the early Modern period, and was planted preferentially as a forest tree from the 19 th century. But it remains unclear whether, in the Schwarzwald National Park without any human impact in the future, the natural forest of Abies and Fagus will come back, because there are still disturbances such as hurricanes and bark-beetle, and overstocking of red deer.
image/svg+xmlIANSA 2015 ● VI/1 ● 47–62Manfred Rösch: Abies alba and Homo sapiens in the Schwarzwald – a Diffcult Story 48 Table 1. The cirque lakes of Nordschwarzwald. No.LakeNearKoordinatesElev.LengthWidthDepthWater expensePollen samples 14 C DatingsNEm.a.s.l.mmmha 1Herrenwieser See4 km w Forbach48°40'10"8°17'48"830200 80 9,51,2369372Glaswaldsee4 km e Bad Peterstal48°25'36"8°15'45"839200200112,9153163Mummelsee4 km ne Seebach48°35'56"8°12'07"1028250170173,319312 4 Schurmsee4 km wnw Schönmünzach48°36'50"8°19'12"795175105131,6244195Wilder See am Ruhestein4 km e Seebach48°34'15"8°14'24"91017015011,52,1259166Huzenbacher See3 km sw Huzenbach48°34'33"8°20'58" 747 2501557,52,536422 7 Buhlbachsee10 km w Baiersbronn48°30'06"8°14'43" 790 2001704,52,231818 8 Ellbachsee4 km wsw Baiersbronn48°29'03"8°18'20" 770 110 90 22,985