image/svg+xml105XIV/1/2023INTERDISCIPLINARIA ARCHAEOLOGICANATURAL SCIENCES IN ARCHAEOLOGYhomepage: http://www.iansa.euApplication of Phytolith (Microbiomorphic) and Non-Pollen Palynomorph Analyses to the Geoarchaeological Study of the Graft Farmyard, the NetherlandsOlga Druzhinina1,2*+, Dario Hruševar3+, Kasper Jurgen van den Berghe1, Nancy de Jong-Lambregts4, Alexandra Golyeva5, Koraljka Bakrač6, Božena Mitić31FindX Research Company, Palestrinalaan Laan 1157, 8031VK Zwolle, the Netherlands2Institute of Oriental Stidies Russian Academy of Sciences, Rozhdestvenka Street 12, 107031 Moscow, Russia3University of Zagreb, Faculty of Science, Horvatovac 102a, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia4Gemeente Alkmaar, Archaeological Centre, Bergerweg 1, 1815 AC Alkmaar, the Netherlands5Institute of Geography Russian Academy of Sciences, Staromonetniy Lane 29, 119017 Moscow, Russia6Croatian Geological Survey, Milana Sachsa 2, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia1. IntroductionDuring rescue excavations, archaeologists often have to operate under the high pressure of time and fnances, and when the desired scientifc assistance cannot be obtained. As a result, a narrow range of geoarchaeological methods are applied or a limited number of samples is analysed. In rescue excavations carried out in the Netherlands, palynological analysis and radiocarbon dating are the most common methods used. Meanwhile, the palette of geoarchaeological methods for archaeological research is rich and broad, numbering at least two dozen and considering such types of anthropogenic indicators as phytoliths, seeds, microcharcoal, geochemical elements, etc.(Golyeva, 2001; 2008; Holliday and Gartner, 2007; Wilson et al., 2008; Cugny et al., 2010; Milek and Roberts, 2013; Dietre et al., 2014; Cuenca-García, 2015; Shumilovskikh et al.,2016; Rashid et al., 2019). In this paper, two of the methods – phytolith (microbiomorphic) and non-pollen palynomorphs analyses, generally accepted as advanced, efcient and afordable methods, are discussed.Phytolith analysis is one of the rapidly-developing, up-to-date scientifc methods in archaeology and palaeoecology (Rashid et al., 2019). The considerable number of plants which grew or were used in a certain area, leave evidence of their prior existence in the form of phytoliths. Phytoliths are resistant to destruction, and can persist in the soil or on the surface of various objects for thousands of years (Piperno, Volume XIV ● Issue 1/2023 ● 105–117*Corresponding author. E-mail: frst authorship.ARTICLE INFOArticle history:Received: 28thFebruary 2022Accepted: 18thNovember 2022DOI: words:phytolithsmicrobiomorphsNPPgeoarchaeologyMiddl AgesEarly Modern TimeNorth HollandABSTRACTThe aim of the present paper is to discuss the application of phytolith (microbiomorphic) and non-pollen palynomorph (NPP) analyses to the geoarchaeological study of a Medieval – Early Modern Time period farmyard in Graft, a settlement located in the polder region of North Holland, the Netherlands. The authors have assessed the potential of the methods chosen for studying this type of archaeological site during rescue excavations, when archaeologists often have a limited number of samples or methods for geoarchaeological analysis. The studies conducted have proved the informative value and efectiveness of microbiomorphic and NPP analyses in rescue excavations, especially when applied in combination, thus providing controlling and complementary information for each analysis. The data obtained have provided an important insight into the archaeological interpretation of the cultural layer within the farmyard. In addition, more information was gained on the local palaeoenvironmental dynamics and the phases of economic activity at the farmyard during the 13th–17thcenturies CE.
image/svg+xmlIANSA 2023 ● XIV/1 ● 105–117Olga Druzhinina, Dario Hruševar, Kasper Jurgen van den Berghe, Nancy de Jong-Lambregts, Alexandra Golyeva, Koraljka Bakrač, Božena Mitić: Application of Phytolith (Microbiomorphic) and Non-Pollen Palynomorph Analyses to the Geoarchaeological Study of the Graft Farmyard, the Netherlands1062006). As Madella and Lancelotti (2012) point out, in general, phytoliths are not transported over long distances because they are relatively “heavy” particles, and they therefore characterise a specifc local, rather than regional (as pollen), environmental situation. The property of phytoliths to remain in situis a valuable source of information which can be directly related to human activity or the palaeoenvironment. The development of classical phytolith analysis has led to an extended version of this method; microbiomorphic analysis (Golyeva, 2008). It includes a microscopic study of all the microbiomorphs (organic and silica) retrieved during the chemical processing in a phytolith sample and their comprehensive interpretation. Thus, in addition to the identifcation of phytoliths, microbiomorpic analysis comprises the quantitative estimation of plant detritus (wood and grass), the shells of diatoms, the spicules of sponges, soil fungi, etc.Each of the microbiomorphs is an indicator of certain environmental conditions, thus providing data to supplement and check the information. As a result, a wider spectrum of valid multi-faceted information on the palaeoenvironment can be obtained (Golyeva, 2008; 2016).Archaeological sediments contain, in addition to pollen grains, an abundance of “extra” microfossils grouped under the name of non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs). They are highly diverse in nature, comprising the remains of fungi and algae, the eggs of parasites, the shells of amoebae, etc.(Shumilovskikh et al.,2016; Shumilovskikh and van Geel, 2020). Each type of NPP occurs under specifc conditions, such as the presence of decaying wood; the on-site deposition of manure; wood or manure with parasitic contamination; after fre and erosional events; and drought or waterlogging conditions. They occur together with the increased supply of nutrients or water pollution (Cugny et al.,2010; Chambers et al.,2011; Feurdean et al.,2013; Shumilovskikh