image/svg+xml163XIII/2/2022INTERDISCIPLINARIA ARCHAEOLOGICANATURAL SCIENCES IN ARCHAEOLOGYhomepage: http://www.iansa.euExamination of Metal Finds from the 10thCentury Cemetery of Kiskunfélegyháza (Hungary)Béla Török1*,Alessandra Giumlia-Mair21Institute of Metallurgy, University of Miskolc, B/1, 3515 Miskolc-Egyetemváros, Hungary2AGM Archeoanalisi, Via della Costa 4, I-39012 Merano (BZ), Italy1. Introduction – archaeological backgroundThe excavation of the 10th century cemetery identifed on the Kiskunfélegyháza-Terjék-tanya site was performed by the Kiskun Museum and the Research Centre for Archaeology of the Institute for Hungarian Studies within the framework of a joint project in April 2020 (Gallina et al., 2021). The excavation showed that the cemetery had been heavily disturbed by sand quarrying and metal detecting. When the burial site was excavated, the connection between certain graves and some scattered fnds could be reconstructed only partially and it remained often hypothetical. The archaeological excavation revealed that the cemetery consists of a number of graves arranged along one line. The site can be dated to the mid-10thcentury AD. Coins of Hugo of Provence and Lotar II of Pavia were found in one of the graves, giving thus the year 931 as the terminus post quemof the burial (Gallina et al., 2021). In the conquest period this cemetery must have been the burial site of an elite Hungarian community – or possibly of a family –because, besides the silver jewellery, a gold hair band and harnesses were recovered from the graves. As we know from excavations on other sites dated to the period of the Hungarian conquest (9th–10thcenturies) that surround Kiskunfélegyháza, the region was densely populated and was quite an important area at that time (Tóth, 1974; Somogyvári, 1992; Balogh, 2003; Varga, 2011). Important archaeological sites, cemeteries of the conquering Hungarians, and a map of the excavation site of Terjék-tanya can be seen in the Figure 1. The location of grave 1 could not be precisely determined, but it could be between grave 2 and grave 3. Most of the fnds belonging to grave 1 were found with a metal detector.2. Materials and methodsSome objects made of precious metals and copper-based alloys have been analysed by energy dispersive X-ray fuorescence (henceforth ED-XRF). An Oxford Instrument X-MET8000 portable ED-XRF spectrometer (50 kV, Rh anode, Silicon Volume XIII ● Issue 2/2022 ● Pages 163–177*Corresponding author. E-mail: bela.torok69@gmail.comARTICLE INFOArticle history:Received: 22ndFebruary 2022Accepted: 9thSeptember 2022DOI: words:metals10thcenturyHungaryED-XRFOMSEM-EDSABSTRACTThis case study presents the results and conclusions of chemical and metallographic analyses carried out on metal fnds (gilded silver mounts, jewelry made of silver- and copper-based alloys, and iron horse fttings) found in nine graves excavated at the 10thcentury site of the Terjék-tanya at Kiskunfélegyháza (Hungary). The examinations were performed with portable handheld X-ray fuorescence spectrometer (ED-XRF), optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscope (SEM-EDS). Beside the determination of the chemical composition of the non-ferrous artefacts and the inclusions of the iron samples, the aim of the study was to detect traces and characteristics of diferent manufacturing methods such as fre gilding, forging, etc.
image/svg+xmlIANSA 2022 ● XIII/2 ● 163–177Béla Török, Alessandra Giumlia-Mair: Examination of Metal Finds from the 10thCentury Cemetery of Kiskunfélegyháza (Hungary)164Drift Detector) has been used. Three calibration methods were employed for the measurements. In most cases we used the Precious FP mode, developed for the analysis of elements found in alloys and in particular precious metals (Au, Ag). Further, we used the mode Alloy FP, developed for the analysis of the most common elements found in alloys, and the Alloy LE FP, which is similar to Alloy FP but also includes light elements, such as, for example, Mg, Al and Si. The concentration range for each element goes from 0% to 100% in all three cases. Fundamental parameter (FP) methods use a complex mathematical analysis of X-ray fuorescence to calculate the concentration of elements. For metals with inherently unknown composition, such as historical fnds, this method is highly suitable and recommended. In the case of these metal objects only a non-destructive examination was possible. The general aim of the analyses was that of determining the chemical composition of the alloys and of the possible coatings. The measurements were carried out