image/svg+xml41XIII/1/2022INTERDISCIPLINARIA ARCHAEOLOGICANATURAL SCIENCES IN ARCHAEOLOGYhomepage: http://www.iansa.euThe Provenance of Raw Materials of the Second Complex (2018) of Stone Casting Moulds from the Archaeological Monument of Tokivske-1 (Ukraine)Ihor S. Nikitenko1*, Oleksandr V. Starik2, Vladimir I. Ganotskiy1†1Dnipro University of Technology, 19, Dmytro Yavornytskyi Avenue, Dnipro, 49005, Ukraine2Dmytro Yavornytsky National Historical Museum of Dnipro, 18, Dmytro Yavornytskyi Avenue, Dnipro, 49005, Ukraine1. IntroductionThe archaeological monument of Tokivske-1, the study of which began in 2012 by the expedition of the Dmytro Yavornytsky National Historical Museum of Dnipro, appeared to be one of the most interesting archaeological sites of the Middle Dnipro area recently included in the archaeological map. The monument was discovered thanks to the active work of local historian Y. I. Serhiichuk, who informed the museum archaeologists about the existence of an interesting feature, located near the village of Tokivske in the Dnipropetrovsk Region (Figure 1). The village is known for its deposit of pink granites of the Tokivskyi complex as well as for geological landmarks such as a canyon and waterfalls in the River Kamianka valley. The discovery of a stone megalithic construction and a cult pit during the archaeological excavations was the frst result of the work. Further archaeological excavations allowed the establishment of three main cultural horizons on the Tokivske-1 site. The frst, the lowest horizon, dates back to the Middle Bronze Age (Babyne Cultural Circle). The second horizon belongs to the Late Bronze Age (Sabatynivka Culture). The upper horizon belongs to the Early Iron Age and is represented by Scythian monuments (Starik, 2017).In the frst stage of the monument’s study, it was interpreted only as a “megalithic place of worship”. Megalithic constructions, similar to the one in Tokivske, are known in the Dnipro Rapids area (the rapids existed on the river Dnipro in its fow between the cities of Dnipro and Zaporizhzhia). These constructions are usually “located over the water, on islands or the second terrace, usually on a little cape, formed by a gully in the place of its fowing into the river Dnipro, less often on the third terrace” (Lahodovska, 1949). In addition to the megalithic construction, which existed for a long time and was visited by representatives of various tribes, an altar stone, lingam-like and anthropomorphic stelae, several cult pits, several thousands of pottery fragments, nearly 80 fint implements and 53 stone implements, and Volume XIII ● Issue 1/2022 ● Pages 41–52*Corresponding author. E-mail: ihornikitenko@gmail.comARTICLE INFOArticle history:Received: 9thJuly 2020Accepted: 4thJanuary 2022DOI: words:stone casting mouldspetrographyLate Bronze AgeTokivske-1UkraineABSTRACTPetrographic research was undertaken on the second casting moulds complex discovered in 2018 at the archaeological monument Tokivske-1 in Ukraine. Metalworking of the Late Bronze Age in the Northern Black Sea region is known for its utilisation of stone moulds made from meta-ultrabasites (“talc schists”) by representatives of the Sabatynivka culture. Field investigations in the vicinity of Tokivske indicated the probable place of stone mining, from where a considerable part of the casting moulds under study were made. The discovery of the place of stone mining near Tokivske-1 and fnds of similar moulds in other regions give grounds for considering the monument to be not only a centre of metalworking but also stone-processing. The obtained data are also the frst geologically proved evidence that the Kryvyi Rih area, which was previously considered the main supplier of “talc schists”, was not the only place of mining of raw materials for the manufacturing of casting moulds in the Middle Dnipro area. Both complexes, the second and the previous one, found in 2017, contain matrices made of identical raw materials, namely, the samples made are untypical for the Middle Dnipro area species. This fact indicates the synchronicity of both complexes and a signifcant volume of casting production in Tokivske-1.
image/svg+xmlIANSA 2022 ● XIII/1 ● 41–52Ihor S. Nikitenko, Oleksandr V. Starik, Vladimir I. Ganotskiy†: The Provenance of Raw Materials of the Second Complex (2018) of Stone Casting Moulds from the Archaeological Monument of Tokivske-1 (Ukraine)42numerous osteological materials were found in Tokivske-1. Archaeological excavation was accompanied by petrographic research of the stone materials, which allowed the sources of origin of the stone implements and raw materials for their manufacture to be determined (Nikitenko et. al., 2018; Nikitenko et. al., 2019). Additionally, based on the analysis of the raw material of a stone pestle-sceptre, a connection between the Tokivske-1 site and the Donetsk Mining and Metallurgical Centre of the Late Bronze Age was recognised (Nikitenko et. al., 2019), which was the most developed on the territory of Ukraine thanks to the richest reserves of copper ore in the Bakhmut lobe area (Brovender and Okalelov, 2019).The need to re-estimate the role of the archaeological monument of Tokivske-1 became apparent after the frst hoard of stone casting moulds of the Late Bronze Age (consisting of three valves of moulds) was found on the site in 2017. Furthermore, minor fragments of two ceramic moulds and one stone mould were found nearby. It was suggested that there is a monument of ancient metalworking on the site. Metalworking centres were very common and fourished in the Northern Black Sea region during the Late Bronze Age, and played an essential role in its economic development. The key to this was the links with the mining and metallurgical centres of the Balkans, the Urals and the Caucasus (Sava and Borofka, 2013). We should note that the conclusions about the nature and typology of the Tokivske-1 monument could only be made after the entire territory of the cape, on which it is located, had been studied.The following year, the expedition found one more hoard of casting moulds, which was discovered at a distance of 26 m to the southwest of the previous one. The hoard comprised seven items: a single-sided mould with a cover, used for a rounded ingot or a mirror casting; a preformed block or a mould cover for a rounded product casting; the central element of a four-sided mould for casting a fat adze and three chisels; a valve of a single-sided mould for a celt casting; two double-valved double-sided moulds for dagger casting. Not far from the hoard, a preformed block for a valve and three little fragments of casting moulds were also found.A trade in preformed blocks and readymade stone moulds was evidenced on the territory of Ukraine in the Late Bronze Age. The main raw material for their production was meta-ultrabasite, mainly with a composition of talc-chlorite-amphibole. In the Northern Black Sea region, the extraction of meta-ultrabasite and the exchange trade in casting moulds and preformed blocks are associated with the tribes of the Sabatynivka Culture (16th– 13thcenturies BCE) (Leskov, 1967). A petrographic study of the frst complex showed the unusual provenance of the meta-ultrabasites used for the matrices manufacturing, an issue which requires further research (Nikitenko et. al., 2020).This paper is devoted to the petrographic research of the second complex of casting moulds, including the determination of the provenance of its stone raw materials and a comparison with the materials of the frst complex matrices. The main goals of the research were to fnd the most probable place of ancient mining, as well as to elaborate new data for the concept of mining the meta-ultrabasites for the casting moulds production in the Late Bronze Age.2. Petroarchaeological backgroundPetrographic analysis is widely used in the investigation of Bronze Age stone implements. Its application allows the provenance of diferent raw materials to be determined. I can be also a key to understanding the system of ancient stone mining and its delivery. Examples of recent use of such methods are studies of stone tools from the archaeological