image/svg+xml121 X/2/2019 INTERDISCIPLINARIA ARCHAEOLOGICA NATURAL SCIENCES IN ARCHAEOLOGY homepage: http://www.iansa.eu Skołoszów 16 – A Spatial Arrangement of the Eneolithic Settlement of the Funnel Beaker Culture in the Rzeszów Foothills (South-Eastern Poland) in the Light of Previous Excavations and Geophysical Survey Dariusz Król a* , Jakub Niebieszczański b a Institute of Archaeology of the Rzeszów University, Moniuszki 10 Street, 35-015 Rzeszów, Poland b Faculty of Archaeology Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Uniwersytetu Poznańskiego 7 Street, 61-614 Poznań, Poland 1. Introduction In the last decade, much progress has been made in studies on the settlement patterns of the Eneolithic Funnel Beaker culture (hereinafter FBC) in the eastern part of the Rzeszów Foothills in south-eastern Poland. During rescue archaeological investigations preceding the construction of the A4 highway, non-megalithic long barrows (Król et al. , 2014) and spatially-diverse stable settlements – previously unknown in this area – were excavated ( e.g. Rybicka et al. , 2014; 2016; Dębiec et al. , 2015; Sznajdrowska, 2016). These results shed new light on FBC settlement patterns in south-eastern Poland ( cf. Czopek and Kadrow, 1987; Zych, 2008; Nowak, 2009). They then also became a starting point to initiate detailed micro-regional studies, which led to the identifcation and/or verifcation of several dozens of further sites of this cultural phenomenon ( e.g. Rogoziński, 2014; Rybicka, 2016; Sieradzka and Głowacz, 2017; Król, 2017; 2018). One of the most signifcant achievements of these investigations was the identifcation of a new settlement in Skołoszów 16 – one of the largest FBC sites located south of the upper Vistula ( cf. Rybicka et al. , 2014; Król, 2017; 2018). This settlement was discovered in 2016 during a surface survey mission. The dispersion of sherds within an area of several hectares indicates the possibility of intense habitation in this place by FBC people (Król, 2017; cf. Król, 2018). In order to verify this hypothesis, as well as determine the extent, spatial arrangement and chronology of the settlement, excavation and non-invasive geophysical surveys were carried out. Magnetic prospection had already showed its potential in investigating other Eneolithic sites in the close-by area of Skołoszów 7, where numerous funeral features were revealed (Cwaliński et al. , 2018). Therefore, it was decided to use this method to investigate Skołoszów 16, which was comprised of the same geological formation of loess sediments, providing a clear magnetic background. Volume X ● Issue 2/2019 ● Pages 121–128 *Corresponding author. E-mail: kroldrk@gmail.com ARTICLE INFO Article history: Received: 2 nd January 2019Accepted: 25 th November 2019DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.24916/iansa.2019.2.2 Key words: EneolithicFunnel Beaker culturenon-invasive surveygeomagneticexcavationsspatial arrangement ABSTRACT In recent years, numerous sites of the Eneolithic Funnel Beaker culture (FBC) have been identifed in the Rzeszów Foothills (south-eastern Poland). Among them, a large settlement in Skołoszów 16 seems to be particularly signifcant due to its internal characteristics. In order to determine its extent, spatial arrangement and chronology, an interdisciplinary investigation (including excavations and a non-invasive geophysical survey) was carried out in 2017–2018. As a consequence of two seasons of feld work campaigns, we have recognized numerous morphologically diverse features (mainly pits) and the settlement (cultural) layer. Excavations documented the intense usage of the settlement’s space which encouraged carrying out a geophysical survey over the wider area of the site. The magnetic anomaly distribution refects many presumable anthropogenic features. Several particular concentrations of features visible on the magnetometry image seem to be related with the FBC, thus delimiting the spatial extent of the site. Based on the geophysical picture, it was possible to estimate that the site measured at least 65×40 m, while the excavations conducted revealed that the settlement was comprised of numerous pits and one settlement layer.
image/svg+xmlIANSA 2019 ● X/2 ● 121–128Dariusz Król, Jakub Niebieszczański: Skołoszów 16 – A Spatial Arrangement of the Eneolithic Settlement of the Funnel Beaker Culture in the Rzeszów Foothills (South-Eastern Poland) in the Light of Previous Excavations and Geophysical Survey 122 2. Location of settlement The settlement in Skołoszów 16 is located in the north-eastern region of the Rzeszów Foothills (Figure 1) on a loess zone in the south-eastern part of the Sandomierz Basin (Kondracki, 1988). It is situated on a slightly fattened small hill, on the right bank of the valley of the Łęg Rokietnicki River, about 380 m away from its present-day riverbed and