image/svg+xml191 IX/2/2018 INTERDISCIPLINARIA ARCHAEOLOGICA NATURAL SCIENCES IN ARCHAEOLOGY homepage: Early Arrival of New World Species Enriching the Biological Assemblage of the Santi Quattro Coronati Complex (Rome, Italy) Claudia Moricca a,b* , Francesca Alhaique c , Lia Barelli d , Alessia Masi b , Simona Morretta e , Rafaele Pugliese f , Laura Sadori b a Department of Earth Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy b Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy c Archaeozoology Laboratory, Bioarchaeology Service, Museum of Civilizations, Piazza G. Marconi 14, 00144 Rome, Italy d Department of History, Representation and Restoration of Architecture, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazza Borghese 9, 00186 Rome, Italy e Institute for Archaeological Heritage in Rome, Piazza dei Cinquecento 67, 00185 Rome, Italy f Independent researcher, Via del Forte Tiburtino, 120/d, 00159 Rome, Italy 1. Introduction The discovery of the New World by Columbus in 1492 caused a series of revolutions, among which the arrival of new vegetal and animal edible species that were gradually introduced in the diet and habits of Europeans and soon became a substantial part of it. The plants include Capsicum spp. (pepper and hot chili), Cucurbita spp. (gourds and pumpkins), Helianthus spp. (sunfower), Phaselous spp. (beans), Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato), Solanum tuberosum L. (potato), Theobroma cacao L. (cocoa), Zea mays L. (corn), and the not edible, but quite important plant from an economic point of view, Nicotiana spp. (tobacco). Domestic animal species, in contrast, are much fewer: Meleagris gallopavo L. (turkey), Cavia porcellus Pallas (guinea pig), and Cairina moschata L. (Muscovy duck). Their introduction occurred at diferent times and rates as can be highlighted by iconographic pieces of evidence, ancient texts and recipes, as well as rare archaeobotanical and archaeozoological fndings (Mofet, 1992; Karg, 2010; Beneš et al. , 2012). In the reconstruction of the spread of new species, written sources play a key role. The frst indications come from Columbus himself who, for instance, in a letter dated November 13 th , 1493, described maize as a type of millet. The following year, 1494, some Zea mays caryopses were delivered from Mesoamerica by Peter Martyr to Cardinal Ascanio Maria Sforza Visconti in Rome, favouring its distribution not only in Italy, but also in Spain, Portugal and Turkey (Janick, 2011). The fast spread of this plant is Volume IX ● Issue 2/2018 ● Pages 191 –203 *Corresponding author. E-mail: ARTICLE INFO Article history: Received: 6 th July 2018 Accepted: 4 th December 2018DOI: 10.24916/iansa.2018.2.6 Key words: New World speciesarchaeobotanyarchaeozoologydisposal pitdiet Cucurbita maxima/moschataCucurbita pepoCavia porcellus Early Modern AgeRome ABSTRACT This paper reports the archaeobotanical and archaeozoological data from a disposal pit, whose use started after the partial closure of a staircase, and from a mortar surface within a former porch in the Santi Quattro Coronati complex in Rome, Italy. The two contexts were in use in the Early Modern Age, when the complex served as a cardinal seat. The element that distinguishes the Santi Quattro Coronati from other contemporaneous contexts is the presence of New World species, until now only hypothesized based on a letter sent by the frst resident bishop in Santo Domingo to Lorenzo Pucci, then cardinal with the titulus of the Santi Quattro Coronati. Pumpkin seeds ( Cucurbita pepo and C. maxima/moschata ) were found in the pit, while a pelvis of guinea pig ( Cavia porcellus ) was found in a former porch. Numerous archaeobotanical remains preserved by mummifcation, identifed mostly as food, and many archaeozoological specimens were found in the pit. Based on the data, it is hypothesized that the pit was used mainly as a deposit for table waste. The results as a whole help towards the investigation of the eating customs and daily habits of a Renaissance high-status clerical community.
image/svg+xmlIANSA 2018 ● IX/2 ● 191–203Claudia Moricca, Francesca Alhaique, Lia Barelli, Alessia Masi, Simona Morretta, Rafaele Pugliese, Laura Sadori: Early Arrival of New World Species Enriching the Biological Assemblage of the Santi Quattro Coronati Complex (Rome, Italy) 192 also attested by the frst depictions of maize in Rome in the festoons of the Loggia of Cupid and Psyche painted by Raphael (1515–1518). The fresco shows also Phaselous vulgaris , Cucurbita maxima and C. pepo (Caneva, 1992). The latter, however, had already been represented a decade before in the 1503–1508 Grandes Heures d’Anne de Bretagne , a prayer book compiled and illustrated in Touraine, France (Paris et al. , 2006). The earliest fnding of Cucurbita moschata / C. maxima appears to derive from a 15 th –16 th century cesspit in a Renaissance monastery in Argenta, Northern Italy (Mercuri et al. , 1999); again in Northern Italy, between 16 th and 17 th century, we fnd Cucurbita seeds in kitchen trash of the Guerrieri Gonzaga Palace in Volta Mantovana (Bosi, Buldrini and Rinaldi, 2015). Since the 16 th century it appeared widespread in central Europe (Teppner, 2000). Capsicum spp. appears to have been immediately accepted by Europeans because of its pungent taste, reminiscent of the black pepper that Columbus was originally looking for (Janick, 2011). The frst European illustrations of chili pepper are dated to 1540 ( Codex Amphibiorum ) and, along with other Renaissance images, indicate that hot chili was the frst variety of Capsicum to be introduced. C. annuum seeds are attested in Europe since the 16 th –17 th century in the Dutch site of Hertogenbosch (Hallavant and Ruas, 2014), in early modern sites in Northern Poland (Karg, 2010) and in a 17 th –18 th brick cesspit belonging to the college of the Theatine order in Prague, Czech Republic (Čulíková, 2014). Helianthus annuus L. (sunfower) is also part of the vast heritage acquired after the discovery of the New World. Its frst European depiction dates to 1568 and is found in Florum et Coronariarum by the Flemish botanist Dodoens. Archaeobotanical fndings of sunfower in the Old World were found between the 15 th and the 18 th centuries in south-western Germany, where also Z . mays is attested (Rösch, 1998). The arrival of potato to Europe is attributed to Francis Drake in association with the rescue of Roanoke colonists (Janick, 2012). The delay in the introduction of potato and tomato was partly due to their land of domestication, respectively the Inca Empire, conquered by Francisco Pizarro in 1531–1536 and the Aztec Empire, whose conquest occurred in 1521 (Daunay, Laterrot and Janick, 2006). Potato is frst mentioned in herbals, where an illustration is also found, by Gerarde in 1597. Tomato is frst mentioned in a 1544 chapter on mandrake by P. A. Matthioli (Daunay, Laterrot and Janick, 2006). The frst illustration appears in Fuchs’ unpublished Vienna Codex , painted by A. Meyer between 1542 and 1565 (Daunay, Laterrot and Janick, 2006). Much scepticism surrounded the consumption of both tomato and potato due to their similarity to the poisonous mandrake fruits and roots respectively (Janick, 2011). However, they both soon became substantial parts of the Mediterranean diet.Among the animals, the most important is the turkey. This bird was likely imported to Spain in 1511 and from there it rapidly spread all over Europe (De Grossi Mazzorin and Epifani, 2015 and references therein). As far as Italy is concerned, the earliest possible evidence are the stuccoes in the Vatican Loggias made by Giovanni da Udine and Perin del Vaga between the end of 1517 and the beginning of 1519, but their identifcation as turkeys or peacocks is debated. Other clearer images are found in the paintings of Palazzo Madama by Giovanni da Udine dated to 1522–23. Although in the beginning turkeys were only considered as exotic animals to be exhibited by wealthy people, within a few decades they became popular as high-status food as evidenced, for example, by recipes in the Singolare dottrina by Domenico Romoli (1560) and the Opera by Bartolomeo Scappi (1570). Turkey bone remains are much rarer and less securely dated (De Grossi Mazzorin and Epifani, 2015): the earliest identifed specimen having been found in a silo at Muro Leccese referred to the end of the 16 th –beginning of 17 th century; other remains referred to the 16 th –17 th century are from the Prösels/Presule castle in Alto Adige and from the Gonzaga Palace at Volta Mantovana in Lombardy. In Rome turkey remains were recovered at Caput Africae (17 th –18 th century) and at the Crypta Balbi (18 th century); other specimens dated to the 17 th and 18 th cent. were identifed in the Nuovo Mercato di Testaccio (Rome), possibly indicating that by this time the species was no longer only the prerogative of the high classes.Relevant for our site and for its relations with the Americas is a letter, dated to 1519 or 1520 (Oliva, 1993) by Alessandro Geraldini, frst resident bishop in Santo Domingo, to Lorenzo Pucci (Arrighi, 2016), then cardinal with the titulus of the Santi Quattro Coronati and supervisor for the Church of the Indies in the Consistory, in which turkeys, referred to as a gallus and a white gallina from the “ sub Aequinoctiali plaga ”, were mentioned as a gift sent to the cardinal together with parrots ( psittacos ) and some gods worshipped by local indigenous populations.The analysis of archaeobotanical and archaeozoological data is fundamental for the reconstruction of the history and the introduction of New World species in the European context. These complement written sources and illustrations in terms of the identifcation of the geographical spread of American fora and fauna in the Old World, also taking into consideration factors such as climate and social status. To this purpose the chance to study bioarchaeological samples from Early Modern age confned contexts of the Santi Quattro Coronati in Rome is of great importance. 2. The investigated site The Santi Quattro Coronati is an architectural complex comprised of several blocks constructed between the 4 th century AD and modern times. It is located in Rome (Italy) on the Caelian Hill between the Lateran and the Colosseum (Figure 1). Starting from 1138 AD and for the following four centuries, the history of the monastery was strictly correlated to that of the Umbrian Abbey of Sassovivo, of which it represented the most important fliation, as it was the seat of the attorney of the Roman diocesan administration and
image/svg+xmlIANSA 2018 ● IX/2 ● 191–203Claudia Moricca, Francesca Alhaique, Lia Barelli, Alessia Masi, Simona Morretta, Rafaele Pugliese, Laura Sadori: Early Arrival of New World Species Enriching the Biological Assemblage of the Santi Quattro Coronati Complex (Rome, Italy) 193 the temporary residence of the Pope’s guests (Barelli and Pugliese, 2012). In the 13 th century, a portion of the complex became part of a vast palace, meant to host the cardinal titular of the basilica. In 1564 the complex was assigned to host the Conservatory of the Orphan Girls, run by Augustinian Nuns, who still guard the complex.The complex was subjected to a series of restorations that, through diferent archaeological campaigns, have brought to light structures attributable to the Renaissance. These include a closed staircase, used as a discard pit and some layers excavated within a former arched porch (Barelli and Pugliese, 2012). 3. Materials and methods For the current research, two specifc contexts of this large complex have been taken into consideration (Figure 2). One is a discard pit excavated in 1996, under the supervision of the architects Lia Barelli and Monica Morbidelli and the archaeologist Rafaele Pugliese. The pit occupied the bottom part of the staircase of the façade-tower of a vast titular complex rebuilt under Pope Leo IV (847–855). The closure of a door on the ground foor of the tower is attributed to the restoration works ordered by Cardinal Carrillo (cardinal between 1424 and 1434). This allowed for the stairwell to be flled by waste of a varied nature in the following decades. Such use, as highlighted by ceramics, appears to be dated towards the end of the 15 th century. The closure of the pit is dated at the middle of the following century, possibly in concomitance with the settlement of the Augustinian nuns in 1564. The entire fll of the bell tower has been collected and preserved. For the current study the stratigraphic units US 3 and US 4 have been selected. Archaeobotanical remains were separated through dry sieving, using a series of three sieves with 5-, 2- and 1-mm meshes. A total of 28 l of material was sieved. Each fraction was then hand-picked. Macro-remains were counted, observed under a Leica M205C stereo microscope (magnifcation up to 100×) and photographed using a Leica IC80 HD camera. Combined pictures and 3D models were obtained using Helicon Focus (version 6.6.1 Pro). Morphological identifcation was performed by comparing the samples against several atlases (Cappers, Neef and Bekker, 2009; Neef et al. , 2012; Cappers and Bekker, 2013) and modern reference samples. The second context was investigated during the most recent excavations, carried out in 2011–2012 (Barelli and Pugliese, 2012; Masi, Sadori and Pugliese, 2012) in a former porch (Asciutti, 2012) located in the west side of the garden of the complex. Among the investigated layers, a surface made of mortar (US 521) referenced to the beginning of the 17 th century mixed with ceramic materials dated to the end of the 16 th century, yielded a small faunal assemblage whose content is relevant for the present research. Traditionally, in archaeozoological analyses the volume of the excavated material is unknown; the remains were therefore simply picked out from the entire flling of each layer. The faunal assemblage – separated from the same buckets as the plant materials as well as another small sample handpicked during the excavation from the same discard pit, but lacking precise stratigraphic provenience – have been analysed. Furthermore, as mentioned before, US 521 from the 2011–12 excavations of the former porch has also been