image/svg+xml179 IX/2/2018 INTERDISCIPLINARIA ARCHAEOLOGICA NATURAL SCIENCES IN ARCHAEOLOGY homepage: http://www.iansa.eu Holocene Vegetation Dynamics and First Land-Cover Estimates in the Auvergne Mountains (Massif Central, France): Key Tools to Landscape Management Yannick Miras a,b* , Michela Mariani c , Paul M. Ledger b , Alfredo Mayoral b , Léo Chassiot d,e , Marlène Lavrieux d,f a CNRS, UMR 7194, Histoire Naturelle de l’Homme Préhistorique, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Institut de Paléontologie Humaine, 1 rue René Panhard, 75013 Paris, France b CNRS, Université Clermont Auvergne, GEOLAB, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France c School of Geography, University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie Street, Parkville VIC 3010, Australia d CNRS, UMR 7327, Institut des Sciences de la Terre d’Orléans (ISTO), Université d’Orléans/BRGM, 1A rue de la Férollerie, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2, France e INRS – Eau Terre Environnement, 490 rue de la Couronne, Québec, QC, G1K 9A9, Canada f University of Basel, Department of Environmental Sciences, Bernoullistrasse 30, 4056 Basel, Switzerland 1. Introduction The nomination of the “Chaîne des Puys” to the UNESCO World Heritage list makes the development of sustainable management strategies of current landscapes of the Auvergne mountains a pressing concern (Ballut et al ., 2012; Miras et al ., 2015). The development of such strategies is a priority as human-induced ecological disturbances are already being observed, particularly a loss in biodiversity in diferent plant communities (Carrère et al ., 2014). The causes of this are numerous and include the destruction of natural habitats, a widespread enhanced erosion and organic pollution. Although the Chaîne des Puys is located in a Natural Park (“Parc Naturel Régional des Volcans d’Auvergne”), this volcanic mid-mountain area (up to 1465 m asl) is characterized by a relatively dense human occupation. Thus, anthropogenic pressure is current and mainly induced through agropastoralism and tourism. The process of environmental-decision making must therefore ensure environmental quality, biodiversity conservation and restoration of ecosystem services without preventing socio-economic development, which is vital for this rural territory. Volume IX ● Issue 2/2018 ● Pages 179 –190 *Corresponding author. E-mail: yannick.miras@mnhn.fr ARTICLE INFO Article history: Received: 11 th May 2018 Accepted: 10 th November 2018DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.24916/iansa.2018.2.5 Key words: vegetation historycultural landscapehuman impactmountainAuvergneHolocenepalaeoecologypollenREVEALS ABSTRACT A multi-proxy palaeoecological investigation has been undertaken at high spatio-temporal resolution in the Lower Auvergne Mountains (France). It allows us to investigate the Holocene trajectories of landscape evolution arising from the interplay between human impact and adaptability, climate oscillations and environmental evolution. The mechanistic models for the regional vegetation reconstruction applied here provide the frst quantifcation of land cover changes in this region. The results obtained allow an improved understanding of past vegetation dynamics and a discussion of: (1) the natural variability of the vegetation to climate oscillations; (2) the development of the cultural landscape and the land uses involved; (3) the timing and the extent of the landscape openness; and (4) the richness in vegetation units within the landscape mosaic measured by the foristic diversity. These long-term changes highlight the sensitivity of these mountainous landscapes: having formed socio-ecosystems that have been shaped over millennia. It is therefore crucial to consider this ecological and cultural heritage when directing future sustainable management plans.
image/svg+xmlIANSA 2018 ● IX/2 ● 179–190 Yannick Miras, Michela Mariani, Paul M. Ledger, Alfredo Mayoral, Léo Chassiot, Marlène Lavrieux: Holocene Vegetation Dynamics and First Land-Cover Estimates in the Auvergne Mountains (Massif Central, France): Key Tools to Landscape Management 180 Previous research has underlined that several fresh insights for the governance, conservation and promotion of landscapes can be gained from palaeoenvironmental research ( e.g. Ekblom, Gillson, 2017; Mercuri, 2014; Whitlock et al ., 2017). In the frst place, palaeoenvironmental research provides a long-term perspective on the complex interplay between human impact and adaptability, climate oscillations and environmental evolution. Secondly, it allows the reconstruction of the long-term development of landscapes which are defned nowadays as coupled human- environment systems – named socio-ecosystems – with diverse and complex linkages over time (Turner et al ., 2003). Finally, it allows a better characterization through time of the ecological processes before, during and after an impact (both natural or human-induced). Moreover, recent advances in palynology play an important role in this issue as follows: (1) the multi-proxy study of numerous high-quality pollen stratigraphical sequences at high spatio-temporal scales ( e.g. in mountains areas, Ejarque et al ., 2010; Joufroy-Bapicot et al ., 2013); (2) the use of mechanistic models for regional vegetation quantifcation ( e.g. Gaillard et al ., 2010; Mariani et al ., 2017; Mazier et al ., 2012); and (3) the use of pollen-assemblage richness indexes which trace the evolution of the foristic diversity (Birks et al. , 2016) and which particularly assess the infuence of woodland clearance on biodiversity, in the case of a combined study with land-cover estimates.The overall objective of this paper is to investigate the Holocene vegetation history in the Lower Auvergne Mountains and the long-term shaping of this cultural landscape as inferred by the high-resolution study of three lacustrine and peat sequences. In addition, the frst quantitative reconstructions of land cover have been performed in order to examine large-scale changes in land cover. REVEALS converts pollen data collected from large sites or multiple small sites into plant cover estimates at a macro-regional level defned at a spatial scale of c. 100×100 km (Sugita, 2007; Trondman et al ., 2016). Consequently, the frst results obtained are only discussed with regard to the major trends of plant-landscape trajectories at a macro-regional scale. Finally, the potential of the obtained palaeoenvironmental