image/svg+xml59 VIII/1/2017 InterdIscIplInarIa archaeologIca natural scIences In archaeology homepage: http://www.iansa.eu People “on the Margin”: A Medieval Cemetery in Český Brod – Malechov (Central Bohemia) Jan Frolík a* , Petra Stránská a , Jitka Votrubová b , Barbora Emmerová b,d , Daniel Vaněk b,c a Institute of Archaeology Prague, CAS, Letenská 4, 118 01, Prague 1, Czech Republic b Forensic DNA Service, Bulovka 1606/1, 180 81 Prague 8, Czech Republic c Charles University in Prague, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, V Úvalu 84, 150 06 Prague 5, Czech Republic d Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2, Czech Republic 1. Introduction The vast majority of the population buried during the High Middle Ages in accordance with church rules in cemeteries or at the parish cemetery church (Unger 2000). One exception is the Jewish community with its separate burial grounds (Cymbalak, Staňková 2014). Graves in the areas of execution are another specifc case (Sokol 2003). There are also some isolated graves, or numerically small groups, outside these areas, where usually the interpretation is lacking. Such an isolated group of graves was discovered during a systematic reconstruction of the underground sewerage and other infrastructure in some streets and squares of Český Brod (District of Kolín, Central Bohemia), reconstruction work which has been ongoing since the 1990s. In 2006–2007, sewerage work excavations were conducted in Prokopa Velikého Street, which forms the axis of Kouřimské předměstí (Kouřim Suburb). The street starts at Kouřimská brána (Kouřim Gate), crosses the Šembera stream and continues towards the town of Kolín (historically towards the town of Kouřim). Today, this part of Český Brod bears the name Malechov (Figure 1).Features from the 13 th to 19 th centuries were discovered in the course of the sewerage renovation work. A larger, more-continuous area was then excavated just in front of house No. 407. The hole dug for the sewage connection to this house contained three disturbed skeleton graves with fragments of medieval pottery in its backfll. Since the graves were situated at a level at which they were endangered by the new roadway, it was decided to make an extensive rescue excavation. A trench pit of 6.2×3.2 m was outlined at both sides of the sewage connection (Figure 2). This part of the excavation took part in June 2007 (Frolík 2007).The clearly defned group of graves in the vicinity of the main road leading into the city raised the question of interpretation. Such an interpretation was made possible on the basis of the most accurate dating by archaeology and by the use of methods of the natural sciences (anthropology, Volume VIII ● Issue 1/2017 ● Pages 59–75 *Corresponding author. E-mail: frolik@arup.cas.cz ARtICLe INFo Article history: Received: 22 th December 2015Accepted: 7 th April 2017DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.24916/iansa.2017.1.5 Key words: skeletal remainspaleopathological analysisForestier’s diseaseBekhterev’s diseaseshort tandem repeatsY-chromosomehaplogroup haplotype DNA extraction ABStRACt Six graves situated on the edge of the settled town suburb of Český Brod have been dated to the 2 nd half of the 15 th century. The group of graves situated outside the regular cemetery, and with one exception reverently buried individuals, raised the question regarding its interpretation. Anthropological study identifed six men of diferent age with many post-traumatic changes on the bones, excessive physical strain and numerous other pathologies. DNA-based examination ruled out the possibility that they were members of minority groups (Jews, Gypsies). People buried on this site are interpreted as people in a marginal position in contemporary society.
image/svg+xmlIANSA 2017 ● VIII/1 ● 59–75Jan Frolík, Petra Stránská, Jitka Votrubová, Barbora Emmerová, Daniel Vaněk: People “on the Margin”: A Medieval Cemetery in Český Brod – Malechov (Central Bohemia) 60 genetics), based mainly on the verifcation of a possible relationship between the buried individuals. Anthropology could give the essential knowledge about the physical condition of the buried, their illness or injuries. The selection of the samples for DNA analysis was based on visual observations of the skeletal remains. It was decided to use only intact teeth as these provide a very high success rate (Katzmarzyk 2007). 2. Description of the Site and Finds2.1 Description of the Terrain The terrain at the site was rather simple. The subsoil consisted of weathered rock (red or rusty mudstone) at a depth of 0.9–1.2 m below the roadway surface. The individual graves (A, B, C, F and G) and also two shallow pits (feature D with a depth of 0.17 m and feature E with 0.42 m) were deepened