image/svg+xml9 VIII/1/2017 INTERDISCIPLINARIA ARCHAEOLOGICA NATURAL SCIENCES IN ARCHAEOLOGY homepage: http://www.iansa.eu The Prehistoric Wetland Site of Náklo (Moravia, Czech Republic) – a Unique Piece of History Alexandra Bernardová a* , Jan Novák a , Vendula Vránová b a Laboratory of Archaeobotany and Palaeoecology, Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 1760, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic b Archaeological Centre in Olomouc, U Hradiska 42/6, 779 00 Olomouc 1. Introduction The vegetation history and infuence of human impact is usually reconstructed by pollen, plant macroremains and anthracological analysis, each method having its own advantages and/or disadvantages. The research of macrofossils for documenting the impact of human settlement is usually limited to fnds of charred macrofossils and thus the results are infuenced by various factors or processes (taphonomy; Jacomet, Kreuz 1999). Uncharred plant macrofossils, on the other hand, due to the low possibilities of their preservation, are limited to rarely preserved wet sediments near to the archaeological site. In agricultural prehistory, the presence of uncharred plant macrofossils is usually restricted to human wells ( e.g. Opravil 1983; 1984; Sedláček 2008). Thus every new wet locality, capable of chronologically recording the presence of uncharred macrofossils refecting human impact, becomes very important.Given the current state of archaeobotanical knowledge, we decided to focus our attention on a wetland locality situated in a former oxbow lake near the village Náklo. The name “Náklo” (or “Nákolí”) is derived from the Czech word describing “houses on piles”, as the terrain was waterlogged and muddy. In literature from the end of 19 th century the locality was recorded as lying in a muddy area (Wankel 1889). The archaeological site is important not only for the presence of its pile constructions, but also by the fnd of bronze vessels from the Halstatt Period (Figure 1).In this study, we focused on: 1) reconstruction of the vegetation in the close vicinity of the Náklo locality, based on plant macrofossils from the local wet sediments; 2) comparison of the record of wooden vegetation using xylotomy and analysis of macrofossils, and 3) comparison of our records, with regional archaeobotanical records. 2. Materials and methods2.1 Study area and present-day vegetation The village of Náklo is located at the edge of the food plain of the Morava River, 14 km northwest of Olomouc, at an altitude of 225 m asl. It lies on an elevated loess terrace in the region of Litovelské Pomoraví (Figure 2).The Litovelské Pomoraví is the northern part of the Upper Moravian Vale. The lowland is characterized by the presence of quaternary sediments such as loess, gravels and alluvial Volume VIII ● Issue 1/2017 ● Pages 9–16 *Corresponding author. E-mail: alex.bernardova@gmail.com ARTICLE INFO Article history: Received: 16 th November 2016Accepted: 15 th May 2017DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24916/iansa.2017.1.1 Key words: plant macroremainshuman impactlowland wetland Late Bronze Age xylotomy ABSTRACT This paper summarises the results of an investigation from the former oxbow lake near the village Náklo. The study profle (“Náklo – Under the church”) is situated near an archaeological site which is important due to the presence of pile constructions and a deposit of bronze vessels from the Halstatt Period. The study focused on the plant macroremains and xylotomy analysis. Only a few plant macroremains studies from lowland wetland sites are notable for the documented presence of archeophytes in central Europe. Our study confrmed long-term human impact and the important infuence of human activities on the alluvial foodplain vegetation, especially during the Late Bronze Age and Hallstat Period. Our analysis of wood enabled the presence of alluvial forest with dominance of Salix, Populus, Alnus , and Ulmus to be reconstructed.
image/svg+xmlIANSA 2017 ● VIII/1 ● 9–16Alexandra Bernardová, Jan Novák, Vendula Vránová: The Prehistoric Wetland Site of Náklo (Moravia, Czech Republic) – a Unique Piece of History 10 sediments (Czudek 1972). Fluvisols and chernozem were mapped as the most common soils near Náklo village (AOPK 2005). The lowland area falls into the Thermophyticum phytogeographical region with a slightly dry and continental, central European climate. The mean annual precipitation is 550–600 mm, and mean annual temperature 8.5–9°C (meteorological site: Olomouc; Quitt 1971).At present, the lowland region is predominantly agriculturally managed with forests covering only a small percentage of the landscape. The current riverine forests belong to the Ulmenion alliance (Chytrý 2013), and the occurrence of Salix and Alnus is associated with river banks and wetlands. Oak-hornbeam forests ( Carpinion ) are typical of the drier part of the lowland, which hydrologically does not belong to the Morava river catchment. As potential natural vegetation, hardwood forests of lowland rivers ( Ulmenion ) and oak-hornbeam forests (un. Carpinion ) have been recreated in the area (Neuhäuselová, 2001).Litovelské Pomoraví is infuenced by long-term agricultural management (Čižmářová et al . 1996). A lot of fndings, including chronologically almost the whole of prehistory, the Middle Ages, and the Modern Period, have