image/svg+xml63 VI/1/2015 INTERDISCIPLINARIA ARCHAEOLOGICA NATURAL SCIENCES IN ARCHAEOLOGY homepage: http://www.iansa.eu Economy and Environment of a Medieval Town Refected in Wells Backfll in Písek, Bakaláře Square (South Bohemia, Czech Republic) Tereza Šálková a, b, c* , Petra Houfková a , Jaroslav Jiřík b , Lenka Kovačiková e , Jan Novák a , Martin Pták b, c, d , Tomáš Bešta a , Alžběta Čejková a , Eva Myšková f a University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Science, Na Zlaté stoce 3, Laboratory of Archaeobotany and Palaeoecology, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic b Prácheň Museum in Písek, Velké náměstí 114, 397 24 Písek, Czech Republic c University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Philosophy, Institute of Archaeology, Branišovská 31a, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic d Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Arts, Institute of Prehistory and Early History, Celetná 20, 116 36 Praha 1, Czech Republic e University of West Bohemia, Faculty of Philosophy and Arts, Sedláčkova 15, 306 14 Plzeň, Czech Republic f University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Science, Department of Parasitology, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic 1. Introduction This paper reports on the archaeological and bioarchaeological data gained from the salvage excavation of two Medieval wells in Písek, Bakaláře Square (South Bohemia, Czech Republic) in 2008 (Figure 1). A large number of artefacts, especially ceramics and wood, were recovered, and fragments of glass, slag, and daub were also found in the wells. The following bioarchaeological methods were applied: plant macrofossil analysis, anthracology, xylotomy, palynology, dendrochronology, archaeozoology, parasitology and diatom analyses.The frst written accounts of Písek date back to 1243 A.D., when King Wenceslas I reigned. The town was established in a sparsely settled landscape, in connection with gold mining activities in the River Otava (Kudrnáč 1971) and as a control point for an important trading route (Fröhlich 2013). The excavated wells are located near the Church of The Nativity of the Virgin Mary which buttresses the southern edge of the historic town centre (379 asl) and is elevated about 20 metres above the river.During pavement reconstruction of Bakaláře Square which surrounds the church, archaeological salvage excavations were perfomed in 2008–2009 (Figure 2). Among the prominent fnds excavated there are the remains of a tumuli and fve urn graves dated to the Bronze Age period, and remnants of the Medieval and Postmedieval town. The town walls, foundations of various buildings (including the Latin school), fountain, remains of wooden tubing and other features from the medieval and early modern periods were unearthed (Houfková et al. 2013). The focus of this paper will be on the description and results from the two medieval wells. Well 1 was completely excavated, whereas well 2 was only excavated in its upper part, and the medieval infll was then conserved for the future. They are currently Volume VI ● Issue 1/2015 ● Pages 63–82 *Corresponding author. E-mail: terezasalkova@seznam.cz ARTICLE INFO Article history: Received: 28 th November 2014Accepted: 16 th August 2015 Keywords: Middle AgesCentral Europewell backfllbioarchaeologyartefact analyses ABSTRACT Two secondary backflled wells and remnants of a walled building, likely a school, were excavated during a salvage excavation of a medieval part of Písek, Bakaláře Square (South Bohemia, Czech Republic) in 2008. Well 1 was completely uncovered, whereas only the upper part of well 2 was excavated; the wells being dated to the 14 th century A.D.Well 1 was examined by bioarchaeological methods (analyses of plant macroremains, anthracology and xylotomy, pollen, dendrochronology, archaeozoology, palaeoparasitology, and diatoms), as well as by traditional archaeological typology of central European artefacts (ceramics, wood, fragments of glass, slag, and daub). It was possible to detect imported materials of various origins and to reconstruct the environment of the town and town background, as well as the common practices for hunting, growing, and waste management in medieval times.
image/svg+xmlIANSA 2015 ● VI/1 ● 63–82Tereza Šálková, Petra Houfková, Jaroslav Jiřík, Lenka Kovačiková, Jan Novák, Martin Pták, Tomáš Bešta, Alžběta Čejková, Eva Myšková: Economy and Environment of a Medieval Town Refected in Wells Backfll in Písek, Bakaláře Square (South Bohemia, Czech Republic) 64