image/svg+xml83 VI/1/2015 INTERDISCIPLINARIA ARCHAEOLOGICA NATURAL SCIENCES IN ARCHAEOLOGY homepage: http://www.iansa.eu Archaeological and Geophysical Investigation and 3D Visualization at the Jánský Vrch Castle in Javorník (Czech Republic) Hana Dehnerová a , Jan Martínek b , Martin Moník c* , Pavel Šlézar a a National Heritage Institute, Horní náměstí 25, 771 11 Olomouc, Czech Republic b Transport Research Centre, Research institute, Branch offce Olomouc, Wellnerova 3, 779 00 Olomouc, Czech Republic c Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46, Olomouc, Czech Republic 1. Introduction The Jánský Vrch chateau, originally a gothic castle, is a dominant feature of Javorník town (Jeseník district, Olomouc region, Czech Republic; Figure 1). It was built on a rock spur reaching from the Rychlebské hory Mountains into the Vidnava Lowland. This elevated point controls the area to the north, east and south-east; also visible from the spur are the Polish towns of Paczków and Otmuchów. New pieces of knowledge were acquired between 2002 and 2006 by archaeological excavation and supplemented by geophysical prospecting in 2013 and 2014 that verifed the position and nature of castle’s historical fortifcations and buildings. This prospecting was accompanied in 2013 by 3D laser scanning at the glacis south of the castle where two structures of unknown origin, probably for fortifcation, had also been identifed (Anonymous 1934). 1.1 History of the Javorník castle/chateaux In the course of the second half of the 13 th century, Javorník village, along with a stronghold and the St. Cross church, was founded in the lowland around Javorník Creek in Silesia. This took place during the course of the High Middle Ages colonization process directed by Otmuchów castle, though infuenced, however, by the long-lasting territorial conficts between the diocese and the princes of Wrocław. The frst written record of the village comes from the register of assets of the Wrocław diocese from 1290. The aforementioned stronghold was erected at the strategic crossroads of roads connecting Moravia and Silesia and remained in function until the frst half of the 15 th century, when it was probably destroyed as the Hussites moved towards the principality of Nisa (Brachtl, Dohnal 1992). Historical records indicate that Javorník village was commanded around the end of the 13 th and start of the 14 th centuries by the duke Bolko I of Svídnice who had a castle built to control both land border and roads connecting the Kłodzko Lowland with the Nisa watershed. In a Volume VI ● Issue 1/2015 ● Pages 83–92 *Corresponding author. E-mail: martin.monik@gmail.com ARTICLE INFO Article history: Received: 1 st December 2014Accepted: 2 nd June 2015 Keywords: Middle AgescastleSilesiaERTGPR3D laser scanning ABSTRACT An archaeological investigation realized between 2002 and 2012 has re-interpreted the construction phases and spatial organization of the Javorník Castle in Czech Silesia. Its frst phase, dating to the beginning of the 14 th century, consisted of a bergfried-type castle with a rounded fortifcation ditch. This fortifcation was re-built at the end of the 15 th and start of the16 th centuries when the castle was divided into upper and lower portions. The Modern Age has seen a complex of constructions at the glacis, pictured also in historical vedutas. Between 2013 and 2014, certain data acquired earlier by archaeological prospecting and excavations were corroborated by electric resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground penetrating radar measurement (GPR); moreover an advanced siege fortifcation, probably related to a Hussite siege of the castle, was identifed by 3D laser scanning south of the castle.
image/svg+xmlIANSA 2015 ● VI/1 ● 83–92Hana Dehnerová, Jan Martínek, Martin Moník, Pavel Šlézar: Archaeological and Geophysical Investigation and 3D Visualization at the Jánský Vrch Castle in Javorník (Czech Republic) 84 document from 1307, a castle manager is already mentioned (Kouřil et al. 2000). After 1348, duke Bolek II of Svídnice left his part of Javorník to the Bishop Przeclav of Pogarel and the castle became the property of the Wrocław diocese. Between 1428 and 1432, the castle was taken and occupied by the Hussites and partially destroyed after their departure (for details see Kouřil et al. 2000).The actual appearance of the castle is due to several reconstructions which took place mainly at the end of the 15 th , and then the beginning of the 16 th , and during the course of the 18 th century. The bishops Jan Roth and Jan Thurzo had the castle, now called Jánský Vrch (Johannisberg), rebuilt between the 1480s and 1509 into a Late Gothic castle. Later Baroque reconstruction took place during the episcopacy of Filip Gothard Schaffgotsch and a Classicist stairway was constructed around the 1890s/1900s (the building’s construction history has been covered by Vítek 2000). 1.2 Overview of archaeological knowledge Archaeological fnds were made at the site already in the 1930s but a systematic investigation only took place after 1990 in relation to construction history research of the chateaux ( e.g. Brachtl 1998; 2000). An archaeological salvage excavation took place in 2001 and 2002 along with some sewer reconstruction at the eastern glacis (Figure 2; in greater detail in Dehnerová, Šlézar 2013).An up-to-date archaeological investigation has revealed that the oldest activities at the castle date from the 14 th century, which is in accordance with its supposed foundation at the beginning of the 14 th century. In the frst phase (14 th –15 th century), a castle of a bergfried type was built, fortifed by a curved ditch (for more details see Dehnerová, Šlézar, in press). In the northern part of the eastern glacis, outside of the ditch, buildings connected with the defence of the castle’s entrance have also been identifed (Figures 2 and 7). A stone building had stood here, a part of which was unearthed close to the north-eastern corner of the castle (Figure 7), and to the north there had stood another wooden and earthen construction as indicated by a fre destruction layer there.Signifcant activities from the period of the castle’s reconstruction around 1500 were also identifed. The fortifcation ditch had been flled with the debris of destroyed buildings from around the bergfried, and the terrain, including the ditch, was covered by a mortar layer. From out of the ditch, pottery from the end of the 15 th and start of the 16 th century was acquired. A new fortifcation 1.4 metres wide was built later, identifed by excavations made in two places (Figures 2 and 7) – in the northern part close to the entrance gate and in the south close to the Classicist house where it had been supported by a tower (overbuilt later by a Modern Age wall). During this period, construction modifcations also took place of the gate building and its vicinity.In the Modern Age (16 th –18 th century), the area of the eastern glacis was paved over several times, levelled by further landflls and partially overbuilt by buildings as indicated by both archaeological investigations and iconographic sources from the 18 th century.After 2002, two major construction works took place in the castle area, both related to public utilities’ construction. The related trenches actually confrmed the knowledge acquired by earlier investigation. They cut into the layers of Modern Age landflls: in several places remnants of cobble pavements at a depth of 1.3 metres were identifed. The rock bed, formed here by amphibolites and gneisses of the Orlice-Sněžník unit (Žáček 1995), was evidenced just exceptionally in the farmyard (Figure 7). The oldest identifed pottery dates from the 14 th –15 th centuries, but comes from secondary contexts. A number of walls were identifed as well, namely in the northern part of the glacis where a foundation stone wall 5.15 m in length and 1.2 m