image/svg+xml119 V/2/2014 INTERDISCIPLINARIA ARCHAEOLOGICA NATURAL SCIENCES IN ARCHAEOLOGY homepage: http://www.iansa.eu Natural and Anthropogenic Changes in the environment in the Middle Ondava Basin (Eastern Slovakia) during the Neolithic Period Tomasz Kalicki a , Marek Nowak b* a Department of Geomorphology, Geoarchaeology and Environmental Management, Institute of Geography, Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce, ul. Świętokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce, Poland. b Institute of Archaeology, Jagiellonian University, ul. Gołębia 11, 31-007 Kraków, Poland. 1. Introduction and basic aims of the study The area of investigation is situated in the north-west part of the Eastern Slovak Lowland (Figure 1). Palaeogeographical studies were carried out on site and off site in the neighboring territory of the archaeological site of Moravany, i.e. in the valley of the small river Šarkan, in its alluvial fan, in the Topľa and Ondava foodplain near Moravany (Kalicki et al. 2005; Nowak et al . 2009, 418–421) and near Kladzany, ca 12 km north of Moravany (Nowak et al . 2010, 159–163). The results of the research project focused on the palaeogeographical and archaeological characteristics of the Neolithic settlement in the middle Ondava Basin (Kalicki et al. 2004; 2005; Nowak et al . 2010) will be presented in this paper. First and foremost, the geomorphological aspects of these results will be discussed. As regards the absolute chronology of the period under discussion, the broadly understood Neolithic ( i.e. also including the Eneolithic) covers roughly the range between 5500 and 2500/2300 BC. Within the project, excavations on the Early Neolithic settlement at Moravany were carried out. The primary topic of our interest was therefore this period, which is dated at ca 5500–5100 BC (see Nowak et al . 2010, 206–208). From the archaeological perspective, the Early Neolithic is characterized by the presence of the Eastern Linear Pottery culture (Kalicz, Makkay 1977; Šiška 1989; Kozłowski (ed.) 1997), which is the frst Neolithic culture in Eastern Slovakia. It should also be mentioned that over the course of the research a great deal of data related to other prehistoric and historic periods was obtained. 2. Methods Geomorphological and geological mapping around the archaeological site at Moravany and feld prospection in the Volume V ● Issue 2/2014 ● Pages 119–130 *Corresponding author. E-mail: mniauj@interia.pl ARTICLE INFO Article history: Received: 5. March 2014Accepted: 20. December 2014 Key words: Eastern Slovak Lowlandthe middle Ondava river BasinNeolithicalluvial historygeoarchaeology ABSTRACT The paper summarizes the geomorphological results of a research project focused on palaeogeographi-cal and archaeological characteristics of a Neolithic settlement in the middle Ondava Basin (north-west part of the Eastern Slovakian Lowland). Investigations on an Early Neolithic (ca. 5500–5100 BC) settlement in Moravany were carried out as part of the project. Palaeogeographical studies were carried out in the neighbouring territory of this site. The Holocene alluvia detected there were much younger than the Neolithic and no distinct traces of the activity of Neolithic people were recorded. Extremely important data were obtained in Kladzany. The general structure of the river valley records the erosio-nal phase of the end of the Pleistocene. In the Early Holocene, the Ondava river cut off the upper part of the palaeochannel fll during lateral migration. A slow process of aggradation was noted during the Neolithic since soil-forming “kept up” with the sedimentation. A change in the rhythm of the overbank deposition occurred after 5,830±40 BP which led to the fossilization of the soil by an over 1 m thick layer of silts. It is diffcult to determine whether it is related to human activity.
image/svg+xmlIANSA 2014 ● V/2 ● 119–130 Tomasz Kalicki, Marek Nowak: Natural and Anthropogenic Changes in the environment in the Middle Ondava Basin (Eastern Slovakia) during the Neolithic Period 120