image/svg+xml139 V/2/2014 INTERDISCIPLINARIA ARCHAEOLOGICA NATURAL SCIENCES IN ARCHAEOLOGY homepage: http://www.iansa.eu Short Contribution: Severe Enamel Defects and Malformations of Canines in Pre-Historic and Historic Domestic Pigs from Bohemia Wolf-Rüdiger Teegen a , René Kyselý b* a Institut für Vor- und Frühgeschichtliche Archäologie und Provinzialrömische Archäologie & ArchaeoBioCenter, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1, 80539 München, Germany b Institute of Archaeology of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, v. v. i., Letenská 4, 118 00, Prague, Czech Republic 1. Introduction Pig teeth are a grateful object for studying malformations as well as enamel or dentine defects in veterinary anatomy and pathology as well as in osteoarchaeology. This feld of study has been more or less neglected, however, in osteoarchaeology and paleopathology. Nevertheless, there are classic observations on more recent fnds which Frank Colyer collected in the frst decades of the 20 th century (Colyer 1936). Fortunately, an updated edition of his book was published by A. E. W. Miles and Caroline Grigson in 1990. Only since the turn of the Millennium, has interested turned toward enamel defects of pig teeth, dealing mostly, however, with premolars and molars ( e.g. Dobney, Ervynck 1998; 2000; 2002; Teegen, Wussow 2000; Teegen 2005; 2006; 2013; Magnell, Carter 2007; Pigière 2009). The canines of the male pig – either of the wild ( Sus scrofa ) or the domestic form ( Sus scrofa f. domestica ) – are of particular interest. These canines are continuously growing (elodont) and are rootless (aradicular hypsodont). They therefore continue growing until the individual dies. The elodont canines have an extended pulp with a rich blood supply. There are enough cells in this and the adjacent areas continually reproducing themselves. There is consequently a constant stream of cells present, ready to heal damaged tissue in the canine area (Miles, Grigson 1990, 404). This means that the dentine cells of the canines of male pigs have a high repair potential. This is quite different with the female pigs (Figure 6) where the canines are not continuously growing. For the wild boar, tusk anomalies – mainly of the lower canines – are sometimes described in veterinary or wildlife literature ( e.g. Palášthy, Palášthy 1991; Kierdorf, Rühe 2002; Kierdorf, Kierdorf 2003; Kierdorf et al. 2004; Konjević et al. 2004; 2006). This is due to the fact that (mainly the lower) tusks are valuable trophies for hunters. Alterations of the maxillary canines are reported less ( e.g. Konjević et al. 2004). Alterations of the canines of male domestic pigs have gained much less attention then wild boars. This is the case both for recent as well as archaeological specimens. This is also valid for enamel hypoplasia which can often be observed Volume V ● Issue 2/2014 ● Pages 139–146 *Corresponding author. E-mail: kysely@arup.cas.cz ARTICLE INFO Article history: Received: 7. November 2014Accepted: 23. December 2014 Keywords: domestic pig ( Sus scrofa f. domestica )enamel defectenamel and root hypoplasia Iron Age (La Tène period) Middle Ages ABSTRACT In this paper four cases of severe enamel and dentine defects in the upper canines of male domestic pigs ( Sus scrofa f. domestica ) from the Iron Age and medieval sites in Bohemia (Czech Republic) are presented. Such severe defects observed in the osteoarchaeological record are a fairly rare condition. They are in all likelihood the result of intra and extra alveolar traumas. In two cases the growing area was completely or partially divided, probably due to a traumatic incidence. The origin of the traumatic insults could be intra- or inter-species fghts, search for food or other accidents. Human maltreatment could also not be excluded. A twisted canine was observed in one case. A description of an anomaly on one lower female pig canine is also included.
image/svg+xmlIANSA 2014 ● V/2 ● 139–146 Wolf-Rüdiger Teegen, René Kyselý: Short Contribution: Severe Enamel Defects and Malformations of Canines in Pre-Historic and Historic Domestic Pigs from Bohemia 140 in canines ( cf. Teegen 2013, 60–61), as they continue to receive less attention than molars or premolars. The average growth rates (in mm/month) for pig canines are also not all that well known. An average monthly growth of approx. 2 mm can be assumed for wild boars above 20 months of age from the southern Ukraine (Woloch 2002, 188, Figure 2). It could be similar or less, probably between 1 mm and 2 mm/month, for domestic pigs.Despite modifcations on bovine incisives having been recently described by Kyselý (2007; 2009; 2012) and certain other dental deformations from the Czech territory having been mentioned occasionally, there is no paper specialised Table 1. Overview of the analysed fnds. Measurements in mm. Abbreviations: GE = growing end (≈EDJ = Enamel-Dentine-Junction), ED = enamel defect. Site1: Radovesice2: Lovosice – Resslova ulice3a: Stará Boleslav3b: Stará Boleslav4: Prague– Vojanovy sady Site specifcationRadovesice 23, Lukovský potok, feat. 107/72trench 2, feat. 8, layer 0–10 cmtrench LXX, square 102, layer 21225trench XVIII, layer 6367 layer ASettlement description early La Tène (A-B1) settlement middle La Tène (C) settlementmedieval stronghold (bailey)medieval stronghold (moat)medieval townArchaeological dating 5 th – beginning of the 4 th cent. BC3 rd –2 nd cent. BCend of the 9 th – turn of 13 th cent. ADend of the 9 th – turn of 12 th cent. AD 2 nd half of the 13 th cent. ADTaxonomic statusdomesticdomesticdomesticdomesticdomesticToothleft upper canineright upper caninein its alveolusleft upper canineleft lower canineright upper canineSexmalemalemalefemalemaleAge at deathadult (> 18 months)adult (approx. 18–24 months) adult (older?) (> 18 months)adult subadult/adult (> 15 months)Length41.644.2 61.838.6 Length (outer arch)52.089.041.0Length (inner arch)41.068.035.0 Minimum diameter at GE 8.3 12.210.910.9 Maximum diameter at EDJ14.4 16.3 14.318.0 Height of ED above GE 31.7 not determinednot determined 19.0–14.1 Breadth of the defect 13.23.2 × 4.7 × 1.0Figure23–45 6 7 Table 2. Lovosice – Resslova ulice (nr. 2). Measurements (in mm) of the maxilla. Values in brackets = approximate. M1-M3 P1-M3P1-P4P2-M3 P2-P4 Length of M3Breadth of M3Max. diameter of canine alveolus (60.9)(100.8)40.2 (93.8)33.3 30.717.321.7